The wicketkeeper is now in a race against time to prove his fitness ahead of the first test, which commences in three and a half weeks.
De Kock sustained the injury during the second ODI against India when he was struck by a ball during his batting innings.
The 25-year-old joins Dale Steyn and Faf du Plessis on the sidelines, whilst AB de Villiers is expected to return from injury in the coming days.
“Quinton suffered an extreme blow to the left wrist while batting in the second ODI on Sunday and felt severe pain and discomfort,” team manager Mohammed Moosajee said.
“Further investigation revealed severe bony bruising to the area, with associated swelling around the tendon in the wrist.
“This type of injury will require between two to four weeks to heal, which subsequently rules him out of the remainder of the ODI and T20 series against India.”
Du Plessis meanwhile is expected to miss three to six weeks with a broken index finger sustained during the first ODI agains India, placing him in serious doubt for the first test against Australia.
Steyn is the least likely to feature in the first test after injuring his heel last month, but is still hopeful he can return and make an impact in the test series.
“Yeah, that (playing in the Australia series) is the plan,” Steyn said shortly after injuring his heel.
“Next two weeks, nothing on my feet. Stay off my feet. After that, I’ll start walking around, and in about four weeks, I’ll start running and then look to start practising again in six weeks.
“That’s a long time. I spent a whole year out, so when someone says to me six weeks, it doesn’t sound too bad.”
The first test between South Africa and Australia is on March 1 in Durban.